Perhaps the greatest threat to the long-term durability of reinforced concrete is corrosion of the steel (primarily composed of iron, or Fe) which expands due to the greater volume of the corrosion byproducts and then cracks the concrete and debonds from the concrete matrix. Billions of dollars in damage occurs each year due to this simple reaction, and our apparent inability to stop it. So what causes this reaction?
Spalling as it is called, pops large chunks of concrete apart. Especially near salt water, corrosion of steel and Portland cement is obvious and visible everywhere. Basalt fibers and reinforcements are the solution!
Better concretes and additives. Volcanic rock fiber reinforcement basalt rebars, basalt meshes and basalt chopped fibers. These are materials which will never corrode and help prevent cracking of the cement from the start. Once water gets in it is the beginning of the end.
Extensive (and expensive) repairs can be prevented by building with the correct materials from the start. In this case, using basalt rebar instead of steel rebar, the concrete wall would have a much longer lifespan, saving money, materials, time and labor. Plus, avoiding a potentially dangerous situation in a heavily trafficked public location.
Buy carbon fiber, fiberglass and other composites online in Australia at Beyond Materials